MRAM (Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory)

The memory used for technical work in any field is RAM (Random Access Memory). MRAM is a non-volatile random access memory that has been under development since 1990’s.
The discovery of the MRAM completely replaces the used of the SDRAM (Static/Dynamic) and brought revolution in the industry of the electronics.

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Features of the MRAM:

• It is small in size as compared to the presently used RAM and requires less space & is more compatible to use.

• It has twice memory with limited physical space and contains ultra fast processing.

• It reduces the power consumption and moreover,

    • In the MRAMs, the data is not stored as in the previous RAM using electric charge. The data stored technology used in MRAM is with the help of magnetic storage elements. These elements are manufactured with the help of the ferromagnetic plates in which one of the 2 plates is a permanent magnet set to some fixed polarity; the other’s field can be changed to match with an external field to store memory. This is known as the SPIN VALUE.
    • The first MRAM manufactured with a 16 bit memory using power forking designs. In 2012, the PTB, Germany has announced to achieve the 500ps (2Gbit/sec) write cycle. Now, the more advancement & research takes place to increase memory and speed.
    • The technique named Spin Transfer Torque (STT) uses spin aligned electrons to directly torque the domains. The other arrangements like thermal assisted switching (TAS-MRAM) are used to increase the processing and reducing the power consumption.


One of the biggest disadvantage of MRAM is that it requires a current of 5-10mA to program but it will be resolved in future. Another problem in its way is its price; it has to be made affordable for mass production.


• In the aerospace and military services.
• Mobile phones, Notebooks and PC’s.
• Digital Camera’s Etc.

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